Inventions have to meet certain criteria:
Along with journals and conference proceedings, patents are a major component of the world's published scientific literature. Particularly in technical fields - and most likely due to the commercial potential of new technologies - a significant portion of published information can only be found in patent publications. Patent data is not just for the inventor; it's for scientific awareness for anyone.
The first step in securing a patent is to file a patent application. Many patent offices provide a specific form to fill in. In some patent offices, you can file a patent application on line.
The application generally contains the title of the invention, as well as an indication of its technical field. It must include the background and a description of the invention, in clear language and enough detail that an individual with an average understanding of the field could use or reproduce the invention. Such descriptions are usually accompanied by visual materials – drawings, plans or diagrams – that describe the invention in greater detail. The application also contains various “claims”, that is, information to help determine the extent of protection to be granted by the patent.
In addition, depending on the applicable patent law, you may need to submit various kinds of statements, declarations or supporting documents to a patent office. In view of the complexity it is recommended that you consult a patent attorney or a patent agent to prepare a patent application.
After submission of your application, the procedures vary significantly from one country to another, so it is impossible to provide an exhaustive step-by-step overview. Here is an example - Invention Patent Lifecycle in CNIPA, for your reference.