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XJTLU Referencing

Find essentials of academic writing and referencing in this guide!

What is Plagiarism?

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is defined by Xi’an Jiaotong – Liverpool University Student Regulations as “Reproducing material from other works or a paraphrase of such material without acknowledgement”.


Common Forms of Plagiarism

  Copying directly from others without acknowledgement of the original source

  Using ideas or rephrasing text from without acknowledgement of the original source

  Using charts, tables, pictures or diagrams from others without referencing

  Reusing some parts of your previous work

  Submitting other people’s work as your own


How to Avoid Plagiarism?

  Use your own ideas.

  Paraphrase + give proper credit to the original source.

  Use quotation marks when using exact words from other authors + give proper credit to the original source.

  Organise and track your sources and materials, or use Bibliographic Management Tools such as EndNote and Refworks to help you.



When writing assignments you must acknowledge the source of your ideas and quotes in sufficient detail so that those reading can locate the item. Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work.


1. Bibliographies, References & Citations

A bibliography is a list of everything you have consulted in preparation for your work (essay/paper), whether or not you have referred to them in the work.


References are the items you have read and cited in your work. The in-text citation and the items in the reference list must match.


A citation is details of a scholarly publication’s location that helps you to find it quickly.


2. Citation Style (Format)

In-text citation

  • Author-Date:
    E.g. xxxxx (Neuman, 2011)
           Neuman (2011) suggested that xxxxx
          (Adams et al., 1983; Benson and Thomson, 1982; Dziech and Weiner, 1990)
  • Numeric:
    E.g. xxxxx [1]
           Neuman1 suggested that xxxxx


Full citation (Example: Harvard style)



Books on Referencing

Explore books relevant to referencing in library's collections.